Waste Water Treatment Processes
Undeniably, waste water may turn out to be extremely dangerous for both the human beings and the environment. Luckily, suitable techniques for treatment are adopted and implemented so as its quality to be greatly improved. By means of different steps, we can enormously lessen the amount of:
- The small suspended solids- particles which can be found in channels or rivers and may lead to their clogging.
- Organic matter which is biodegradable in nature is used as food by multiple microorganisms as it dissolves. These microorganisms blend it with oxygen and that is how they get sufficient amount of energy in order to flourish thus depriving the fish and other aquatic creatures from the oxygen that they also need so as to survive. When there is an accidental or regular presence of such organic fouling in huge quantities, this may result in the appearance of dead zones in which there is no fish.
- Pathogens causing various serious health conditions may be found in the water we consider potable.
- Phosphates and nitrates speed up the growth of algae which consume huge quantities of oxygen thus depriving the other aquatic species of it.
The waste treatment may also tackle the industrial waste related problems as it removes numerous types of chemicals. The perfect way for it to be performed is still at the plant before discharge.
Normally, the stages of water treatment are three and they are known as primary, secondary and tertiary (advanced).
- The first level is largely mechanical. Its goal is to extract the particles which are either floating or plunged in the sewage system. Despite the fact that the primary stage is referred to as mechanical, different kinds of chemicals are used in order the process of sedimentation (using the gravity to do away the solid particles) to be hastened. This important process, if properly executed, may lead to fall in the quantity of biodegradable matter by more than 20%. The treatment of the waste water which is referred to as the primary one is the first step which needs to be taken by every industrially developed country on its way to the clearer environment.
- The secondary treatment is also called by some biological treatment. It eliminates most of what has remained after the primary treatment processes. In the effort to remove the entirely biodegradable matter certain microbes are used. They consume the organic pollutants and produce energy, carbon dioxide, and water. The next step is the so-called secondary sedimentation which is aimed at subtracting the solid particles that have remained. Nearly 85% of these pollutants can be extracted by a factory implementing this sort of treatment.
- Thanks to the tertiary treatment more than 95% of all particles and other pollutants can be eliminated from the sewage systems. The technology used is quite costly and requires expert operators, special equipment and different chemicals, it ensures almost drinkable water at the end of the process. The odification is a common advanced treatment operation which eliminates the excessive nitrogen and phosphorous. The final step in the water pollution treatment is usually chlorine disinfection. It may need to be re-evaluated, however because some environmentalists are worried that the chlorine may result in significant problems. Furthermore, it is unaffordable and sometimes not that efficient in clearing the particles.